The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality

The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality
    The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality et culture."/>
  • Paperback
  • 336 pages
  • The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality
  • Cheikh Anta Diop
  • English
  • 14 January 2017
  • 1556520727

The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality[PDF / Epub] ☃ The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality Author Cheikh Anta Diop – Essayreview.co.uk Now in its th printing, this classic presents historical, archaeological, and anthropological evidence to support the theory that ancient Egypt was a black civilizationNB translation of sections of An Origin of eBook ↠ Now in its th printing, this classic presents historical, archaeological, and anthropological The African PDF/EPUB or evidence to support the theory that ancient Egypt was a black civilizationNB translation African Origin of Kindle Õ of sections of Ant riorit des civilisations n gres and Nations n gres et culture.


About the Author: Cheikh Anta Diop

Origin of eBook ↠ Cheikh Anta Diop was an Afrocentric historian, anthropologist, physicist and politician who The African PDF/EPUB or studied the human race s origins and pre colonial African cultureDiop s first African Origin of Kindle Õ work translated into English, The African Origin of Civilization Myth or Reality, was published in It gained a much wider audience for his work He proved that archaeological and anthropological evidence supported his view that Pharaohs were of Negroid origin Some scholars draw heavily from Diop s groundbreaking work while others in the Western academic world do not accept all of Diop s theories Diop s work has posed important questions about the cultural bias inherent in scientific research Diop showed above all that European archaeologists before and after the decolonization had understated and continued to understate the extent and possibility of Black civilizationsThe Swiss archaeologist Charles Bonnet s discoveries at the site of Kerma shed some light on the theories of Diop They show close cultural links between Nubia and Ancient Egypt, though the relationship had been acknowledged for years This does not necessarily imply a genetic relationship, however Mainstream Egyptologists such as F Yurco note that among peoples outside Egypt, the Nubians were closest ethnically to the Egyptians, shared the same culture in the predynastic period, and used the same pharaonoic political structure He suggests that the peoples of the Nile Valley were one regionalized population, sharing a number of genetic and cultural traitsDiop argued that there was a shared cultural continuity across African peoples that wasimportant than the varied development of different ethnic groups shown by differences among languages and cultures over timeHis books were largely responsible for, at least, the partial re orientation of attitudes about the place of African people in history, in scholarly circles around the world.


10 thoughts on “The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality

  1. says:

    Soundtrack to this review please listen The Ancient Egyptians, the founders of the civilisation that built the pyramids and brought writing, geometry, religion and science to the Greeks and others , were Black, as in Negro as in, they lookedlike the Yoruba or the Kikuyu or the Xhosa than any group of Semitic people They came from the interior, from Nubia Sudan or the drying Western Sahara Their sacred sites were in Upper Egypt, their true homeland Their gods were there, and t Soundtrack to this review please listen The Ancient Egyptians, the founders of the civilisation that built the pyramids and brought writing, geometry, religion and science to the Greeks and others , were Black, as in Negro as in, they lookedlike the Yoruba or the Kikuyu or the Xhosa than any group of Semitic people They came from the interior, from Nubia Sudan or the drying Western Sahara Their sacred sites were in Upper Egypt, their true homeland Their gods were there, and the heads of those gods were painted coal black The Egyptians made no distinction of colour between themselves and the Nubians or other Black Africans Herodotus says they were black and had woolly hair The Bible says it And where Egyptians travelled North, they ruled the earliest kings of Elam were Black, as their tomb paintings clearly show The Canaanites, the Phoenicians, the Carthagianians were Black Speaking of tomb paintings, statuary and so on, well, just take a look, the book has pictures Why am I struggling to make myself clear Well, race isn t a thing is it It s just junk in the mind of the racist, as one friend objected when I started talking about this book The trouble is, we as in everyone are all racist, and the junk in racist minds is exactly what Cheikh Anta Diop can I call him CAD Thanks is writing back to here In fact, Egyptology up to 1954 had been part and parcel of the ideology of scientific racism While CAD is able to cite some scholars of good faith going all the way back to de Volney circa 1785 who observes the much lightened by mixing Egyptians and recalls the words of Herodotus, concluding the ancient Egyptians were true Negroes of the same type as all native born Africans , the majority of the Egyptologists he cites are clearly so deeply sunk in their white supremacy that they will allow themselves any amount of contradiction, denial and extravagant misinterpretation, and think up any crackpot theory, to avoid accepting the obvious conclusion that THE EGYPTIANS WERE BLACK.Some of these theories propose that the Egyptians came from the North, which is ridiculous, and others create White races with dark skin Hence such designations as Hamite Nilotic and so on, proliferate as the white Egyptologists scramble to avoid the belief that the despised and enslaved Negro could be the antecedent and teacher of European culture CAD believes that there are only three races , white, black and yellow and suspects that even the yellow is really just a mix of black and white, like the Semites and other Mediterranean people, and the Egyptians today Egyptologists had suggested that Indo Europeans civilized the Egyptians and lightened them, but Egyptian civilisation pre dates anything in Europe and Mesopotamia, and mixing was very gradual due to the small numbers of whiter peoples coming to Africa, while all the elements of the Egyptian civilisation were in place in the undeniably Black Old Kingdom The pale folks who came to Egypt before it fell were usually prisoners of war who became slaves Egyptians could not be enslaved The country was never a slave economy numbers were small or brought into the royal harem.This isn t a theory of racial superiority of course the Egyptians social and cultural sophistication, asserts CAD, was nurtured by their environment and the need for cooperation imposed by the particular agricultural conditions around the Nile Bounteous nature was unsurprisingly revered Meanwhile, the Indo Europeans struggling to survive on the hostile steppes developed the patriarchal family and aggressive, opportunistic lifeways, devoid of respect for nature, which treated them harshly CAD suggests that the Egyptians persecuted the Jews because of their horror of nomads I am generally wary of this kind of psychological explanation by climate, but in some aspects this speculative description approximates a historical approach I would like to stand up for nomads against this sedentarist perspective, though not especially to defend the people who became the faithless extractivists of Western Europe what about Native American nomadic people, famously not faithless extractivists One of my problems with the text is the apparently uncritical use of the opposition between civilisation and barbarism CAD accepts the idea that Black Africa has regressed from the glory days of the pharaohs I have to object that this is part of racist, colonial ideology.Nor is this the only aspect of the text which needs further decolonisation Unforgivably, CAD collaborates in antiblackness as it constructs black female gender Comments about hair in particular I would like to know what frizzy is translated from are entirely misogynoiristic and when CAD uses the phrase feminine elegance he is explicitly distinguishing white women from black women I don t mean to imply that Native Americans all have nomadic traditions or were all nomadic before the invasion of colonising Europeans despite my ignorance about the topic I am well aware that the continent had many cities before the white invasion CAD thinks that Black Africans who crossed the Atlantic had a hand in this urbanising step pyramids but he is only speculating and I need to do further research into the exciting topic of these Atlantic crossings the term misogynoir was coined by Moya BaileyThe depth of some Egyptologists investment in white supremacy provokes some enjoyable dry humour from CAD In Reply to a Critic , he addresses the remarks of one denier, Raymond Mauny on the ethnic mix of later periods M Mauny knows that if this mix of people were transported to New York City, they would be found in Harlem This snark not only indicates the accessibility of this readable and absorbing book, but also points to the reality that racialisation is contextual As Leena Abiballa a Sudanese writer explains in this article Too Black to be Arab, too Arab to be Black race is a Western fantasy maintained by a daily, violent socio political choreography So, why do I disagree with my friend s comment that we shouldn t assign racial identities to historic civilizations Why am I greeting CAD s project as near heroic Context In, say, Paris, 1954, or London, 2016, a time travelling group of ancient Egyptians would be called BLACK, and that fact turns the foundation of scientific racism, which is the foundation of this Western fantasy of race, UPSIDE DOWN, which as Fanon tells us is what has to be done before it can dissipate into nothingness So while I find the occasional descent into skull measuring tedious, I recognise its necessity What happens now is that nobody talks of the Egyptians as White or Asian, but the conception is not challenged, so people continue to picture them as such and reproduce the idea it has its own self sustaining life That s why whites are cast as Egyptians in movies etc Now I m on the lookout for books and other art that presents ancient Egypt as Black Hollywood antidotes pleaseupdate it has been suggested to me that Cheikh Anta Diop s theory is trapped inside a racist conception I would like to avoid facilitating obfuscation, so I want to reply here Firstly, this is insulting CAD has replied to the racism of Egyptology, implicit and explicit, ON ITS OWN TERMS Even on the grounds of the essentialist concept of race it propounds, it is incorrect I think this is the most effective refutation CAD has used white man epistemology and essentialism strategically.I know that in a way, a meaningful way, the objector is right, because in this volume CAD concludes with touching optimism that accurate or authentic objective anthropology will triumph, racism will be over But yes, a different epistemology is needed To repeat a much abused revelation The master s tools will never dismantle the master s house Audre LordeBut knowing that race is not real has not helped much, has it White supremacy has been making out like a bandit on the back of this valid deconstruction for some time, pretending that since race does not exist, racism the white concept of racism is one of the master s tools does not exist either, since Lincoln freed the slaves or whatever, now there s a full meritocracy, level playing field etc that was all in the past, can t we just move on stop playing the race card Racialisation is contextual, but it does not follow that a person can take off the helmet of their language and culture at a stroke, and end racism thus History is important, emotionally Stories have real power.While I was reading this, I asked some folks this question What do you think the ancient Egyptians looked like The first answer I got was about their clothesThis is avoidance of the uncomfortable I clarifiedThe second reply from a knowledgeable person was that they had Asian skin, almond eyes, long hair That is racist Egyptology at work.I said the Egyptians were Black, as in, you know, like Oprah.The next reply was I don t think we should assign race to them, I never thought about it That is colourblindness or raceblindness, which is really racism blindness, isn t it The last person is quite enlightened, he knows race is not a thing, but it seems to me that it is another way of avoiding an uncomfortable topic.White Supremacy The Egyptians were White, because only Whites could create this advanced civilisation Cheikh Anta Diop Actually, the Egyptians were Black Pomo Covert White Supremacy Oh, race isn t a thing anyway What happened The water got hot, so somebody jumped out.Person 2 also said Surely the Egyptologists were not all racist which is related to the objection some old racist books claimed the Egyptians were white But this is not over, as person 2 s first response indicates They had Asian skin , so they were Asian Go to the British Museum s lovely Ancient Egypt website, and see all the gods drawn as pale as I amAs Sara Ahmed says This is not over We should not get over it

  2. says:

    This book is full of information and facts exposing white washing of origins of Carthage, Egypt, etc Every person of African descent should read this book African history needs to be claimed back and told from the perspective of the African It is a definitive work without a doubtHighly recommended reading

  3. says:

    if there is a bible of african history this is genesis

  4. says:

    The author argues that the ancient Egyptians Anu were Negroes Their gods Osiris and Isis were depicted as black A bas relief from the 18th Dynasty 16th century BC depicts the order of races known to the Egyptians Egyptians, Nahasi Blacks , Namou Asian , and Tamhou tattooed whites The Egyptians and Nahasi were different shades of reddish brown The leading Egyptologists of the 19th century argued against the Negro origin of Egyptians, and their theories of a white Egyptian race won ou The author argues that the ancient Egyptians Anu were Negroes Their gods Osiris and Isis were depicted as black A bas relief from the 18th Dynasty 16th century BC depicts the order of races known to the Egyptians Egyptians, Nahasi Blacks , Namou Asian , and Tamhou tattooed whites The Egyptians and Nahasi were different shades of reddish brown The leading Egyptologists of the 19th century argued against the Negro origin of Egyptians, and their theories of a white Egyptian race won out regardless of the evidence The Phoenicians and the elite of Carthage were also Negroes The Phoenician traders brought white women from Greece to Egypt for the Pharaoh Eventually the whites came to dominate because of mixing of the populations, the Arabs, Jews, Italians, Spanish, and French have Negro blood.Some cultural practices originating with the early Negro civilizations included totemism, circumcision and excision, and matriarchy

  5. says:

    Let s just say Elizabeth Taylor was not accurately cast as Cleopatra.

  6. says:

    this is one of the textbooks for an Intro to African American Studies class i m taking it s a little tough to read at times, but i think that s because i was overwhelmed at the amount of information Diop provided to counter claims made by historians i m looking forward to checking out some of the sources Diop cited in his arguments there s so much history that we don t knowso much that has been denied, disrespected, and removed in relation to Africa this book serves as a good foundation t this is one of the textbooks for an Intro to African American Studies class i m taking it s a little tough to read at times, but i think that s because i was overwhelmed at the amount of information Diop provided to counter claims made by historians i m looking forward to checking out some of the sources Diop cited in his arguments there s so much history that we don t knowso much that has been denied, disrespected, and removed in relation to Africa this book serves as a good foundation to begin to question myths about the real roles of African cultures, including Egypt, in the development of civilization

  7. says:

    This highly technical and scholarly book is fast becoming a classic in the study of ancient African history The book is actually an English translation of large parts of two of Dr Cheikh Anta Diop s works in French Nations Negres et Culture and Anteriorite des Civilizations Negres.The late Mercer Cook French Professor Emeritus, Howard University did a marvelous job translating the complex historical facts, themes and ideas of one of the world s greatest scholars.Diop boldly states his p This highly technical and scholarly book is fast becoming a classic in the study of ancient African history The book is actually an English translation of large parts of two of Dr Cheikh Anta Diop s works in French Nations Negres et Culture and Anteriorite des Civilizations Negres.The late Mercer Cook French Professor Emeritus, Howard University did a marvelous job translating the complex historical facts, themes and ideas of one of the world s greatest scholars.Diop boldly states his position in the Preface p.XIV 1 Ancient Egypt was a Negro Civilization The history of Black Africa will remain suspended in air and cannot be written correctly until historians dare connect it with the history of Egypt .The ancient Egyptians were Negroes The moral fruit of their civilization is to be counted among the assets of the Black world the Black world is the very initiator of the western civilization flaunted before our eyes today Pythagorean mathematics, the theory of the four elements of Thales of Miletus, Epicurean materialism, Platonic idealism, Judaism Islam, and modern science are rooted in Egyptian cosmology and science One needs only to meditate on Osiris , the redeemer god who sacrifices himself, dies, and is resurrected to save mankind, a figure essentially identifiable with Christ A visitor to Thebes in the Valley of the Kings can view the Moslem inferno in detail in the tomb of Seti I, of the Nineteenth Dynasty , 1700 years before the Koran Osiris at the tribunal of the dead is indeed the lord of the revealed religions, sitting enthroned on Judgment Day, and we know that certain Biblical passages are practically copies of Egyptian moral texts The book is well documented and illustrated with many rare photographs of ancient Egyptian antiquities The book is divided into 13 chapters, followed by a Conclusion and Notes.Chapter I What were the Egyptian Chapter II Birth of The Negro MythChapter III The Modern Falsification of HistoryChapter IV Could Egyptian Civilization Have Originated in The Delta Chapter V Could Egyptian Civilization Be of Asian Origin Chapter VI The Egyptian Race As Seen and Treated By AnthropologistsChapter VII Arguments Supporting A Negro OriginChapter VIII Arguments Opposing A Negro OriginChapter IX Peopling Of Africa From The Nile ValleyChapter X Political And Social Evolution of Ancient EgyptChapter XI Contribution of Ethiopia Nubia And EgyptChapter XII Reply To A CriticChapter XIII Early History of Humanity Evolution Of The Black WorldDr Diop points out that western scholars and so called Africanist view African cultures, history and peoples from the outside Being an outsider definitely has its limitations.European scholars attempted to find totemism among European peoples in an effort to support the position that the ancient Egyptians were ancient Whites Western scholars were faced with a dilemma when no examples of totemism could be found among whites.On p.134, Diops mentions the fact that totemism has never been found in Indo European populations and it is well documented that Greeks scuffed at the attention that ancient Egyptians paid to certain plants and animals Diop continues.it was impossible to deny that the taboo character of certain animals and plants in Egypt corresponds to totemism as it exists throughout Black Africa By contrast such taboos were alien to the Greeks and other Indo European populations unaware of totemism This is how Dr Diop describes the response to this fact by his Eurocentric critics The debate finally drifted into philosophical abstraction concrete ethnographical data were transformed into cogitation, into a problem of logic, into pure contemplation that no fact could henceforth disturb by implication.What Diop did not say is perhaps evenimportant.Diop was born in Senegal and his first language was Wolof As a child Diop spent many years studying the history of the Wolof peoples with many of the most erudite members of the Mourides, such as Mbacke Bousso who was a cousin and disciple of the great Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Diop was steeped in the study of African cultures, African Islamic history, Islamic history, the sciences and philosophy Diop taste for serious study started with his childhood studies with the Mourides who value learning and have a long tradition of scholarship He also spoke several African and European languages The young Diop must have been surprised when he slowly understood that ancient Egyptian was closely related to his mother tongue In the book Diop writes about these close linguistic relationships between Wolof and ancient Egyptian The Wolof name Diop is a Clan name as well as a personal name The totem of the Diop Clan is a peacock Upupa epops The people belonging to the Diop clan sometimes wore a totemic hairstyle indicating their totem The head was shaved leaving only a patch of hair on top imitating the peacock This same bird with a patch of feathers on top of its head has a hieroglyphic symbol in ancient Egyptian with the phonetic value of db d.b See Gardiner s Sign List G22, Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar 3rd edition, Oxford, Griffith Institute, 1976, p 469.In Wolof Diop is written Joob.For Diop, and many other African scholars totemism isthan a mere concept it is a living reality they have totems In the book Diop goes into considerable detail about totemism So it s even safe to say that the name Diop can be traced back to early Egyptian Nile Valley culture And we know that totemism is alive almost everywhere in Black Africa even today We must remember that the overwhelmingly settler populations of modern Egypt had nothing to do with ancient Pharaonic civilizations that we all admire Modern Egypt is populated by descendants of Arab invaders,Persians, Greeks, Turks,Syrians and many others.Diop writes that at the birth of the Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon Him the Koran tells us that When Muhammad was born, Arabia was a Negro colony with Mecca as its capital The Koran refers to the army of 40,000 men sent by the king of Ethiopia to crush an Arab revolt One corps of that army consisted of warriors mounted on elephants p.151 It is facts such as this that causes many euro centric scholars to drift into abstractions Dr Diop stakes out his positions very clearly In discussing the classification of the language of ancient Egypt he writes It is as easy to prove the profound unity of Egyptian and Negro languages as it is difficult to support much less prove the kinship of Egyptian, Indo European, and Semitic tongues Diop follows his assertions with support and documentation.So far no one has ever come forth with any evidence to the contrary.Diop debunks the usual nonsense saying that the Nubians were always painted one color and the Egyptians were painted another There are illustrations showing black and brown Nubians and others showing brown and black Egyptians Any one really familiar with ancient Egyptian art would know this.We see white and Semitic captives carved on the rocks in the Sinai There are also the people of the North Libyans shown as prisoners.Usually only Nubian captives are shown, and the attempt is made to suggest that the ancient people of Kemit Egypt and Nubia hated each other and racial hostility is at the bottom of the conflicts, wars and quarrels Are the wars, conflicts and quarrels among the English, Irish, Welsh and Scots based on racial hostility What about the Poles and the Germans Diop continues to calmly and forcefully state his views on the origin of ancient Egypt To assign Egyptian civilization an Asiatic or any foreign origin whatsoever, we must be able to demonstrate the prior existence of a cradle of civilization outside of Egypt However, we can not overemphasize the fact that this basic, indispensable condition has never been met .the date 4241 B.C 4236 after a slight correction of the first calculations , when the calendar was definitely in use in Egypt Thus, it is in Egypt that we encounter with mathematical certainty, humanity s most ancient historical date What do we find in Mesopotamia Nothing susceptible of being dated with certainty Mesopotamia was still building with sun dried bricks made of clay that rain transformed into a mass of mud p.100 It is at precisely these points that Euro centric scholars rush to seek refuge in complex and erudite abstractions and endless speculations maybe the Sumerians gave the ancient Africans the idea of writing or maybe the Mesopotamians somehow kick started ancient Egyptian civilization what is a negro anyway they were not true negroes , they were not black , they were reddish brown colored not black , what do you mean by black , but all black Africans are not the same colorok, ok perhaps they were mixed, perhaps they were a Mediterranean race or Hamitic or even Hamitic negroes or Nilotic negroes.perhaps Kushitic negroes..what about east African negroes as opposed to West African blacks, why all the emphasis on race, there is no such thing as race race is a modern concept, yesbut they were white, no.well perhaps 1 3 black, 1 3 Asian and 1 3 white, yes , an ancient fusion of peoples, nowell what exactly do you mean by black , Negro and African and on and on and on.Every one knows what a European white person is, or what an Asian person is but NO ONE seems to know exactly what a black African person is As Diop says somewhere in the book we must look for the negro with a magnifying glass LOLThe book thoroughly deals with this issue with a subtle humor that is missing in the English translation In this book, Diop has challenged the western intellectual tradition Piece by piece, Diop has begun to remove the layers of speculation, misinformation, deliberate falsehoods and European nationalisms that have distorted the writing of world history for the last four or five hundred years The writing of the history of Africa and the history of the world has not been the same since Cheikh Anta Diop.For Diop and many others, the ancient Egyptians were as African as were the Nubians or the peoples of Yam, Wa Wat, Kau, Temeh, Mazoi, or Irthet Or for that mater, as African as the Yoruba or the Kalenjin or the Mande or Nuer or the Asante or Peul are today Diop s work is no easy read One must struggle through sometimes dense, specialized and complex scholarly jargon translated from the original French Something is always lost in translations in this case a certain edge and focus seems to be missing This is another book that will take quiet awhile to finish Perhaps a survey course in Egyptology would be a great prerequisite for this book In my opinion it will be well worth the effort

  8. says:

    Tremendous amount of information within these pages Fascinating and illuminating discoveries Worthy of 5 stars had Diop not been difficult to follow at times His argument seemingly jumps from points without much connection or reference If you re going to read this text, I d highly recommend a dictionary and encyclopedic source remain handy, otherwise this could become a frustrating read rather quickly If you re up for the challenge and hopefully you will be because it s SO worth the effort Tremendous amount of information within these pages Fascinating and illuminating discoveries Worthy of 5 stars had Diop not been difficult to follow at times His argument seemingly jumps from points without much connection or reference If you re going to read this text, I d highly recommend a dictionary and encyclopedic source remain handy, otherwise this could become a frustrating read rather quickly If you re up for the challenge and hopefully you will be because it s SO worth the effort this proves an astounding scholarly work deserving of mass attention

  9. says:

    Where should I start This book reformed my way of thinking about Egyptians and their portrayal in Euro centric history In a nutshell through supreme intellectual prowess, slyness and meticulous scientific research, he shot every lie about Egyptians being white to hell.A must read.http www.saltygurl.com Where should I start This book reformed my way of thinking about Egyptians and their portrayal in Euro centric history In a nutshell through supreme intellectual prowess, slyness and meticulous scientific research, he shot every lie about Egyptians being white to hell.A must read.http www.saltygurl.com

  10. says:

    Cheikh Anta Diop has to be one of the great African Thinkers of the twentieth century From the time he published his thesis in 1954, he has consistently challenged western ideas on Africa and its relationship to Ancient Egypt The African Origin of Civilization Myth or Reality represents his definitive work on early African Civilization and the origins of the Ancient Egyptians.Definitely a must read for anyone interested in African History.

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