The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956 Epub ´ The Gulag

The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956 Epub ´ The Gulag
    The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956 Epub ´ The Gulag all powerfully Through truly Shakespearean portraits of its victims men, women, and children we encounter secret police operations, labor camps and prisons the uprooting or extermination of whole populations, the welcome that awaited Russian soldiers who had been German prisoners of war Yet we also witness the astounding moral courage of the incorruptible, who, defenseless, endured great brutality and degradation The Gulag Archipelago a grisly indictment of a regime, fashioned here into a veritable literary miracle has now been updated with a new introduction that includes the fall of the Soviet Union and Solzhenitsyn s move back to Russia."/>
  • Paperback
  • 472 pages
  • The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956
  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
  • English
  • 04 September 2017
  • 0060007761

The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956❰PDF / Epub❯ ✅ The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956 Author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Essayreview.co.uk Drawing on his own incarceration and exile, as well as on evidence from than fellow prisoners and Soviet archives, Aleksandr I Solzhenitsyn reveals the entire apparatus of Soviet repression the state Drawing on his own incarceration and exile, as well as on The Gulag PDF or evidence from thanfellow prisoners and Soviet archives, Aleksandr I Solzhenitsyn reveals the entire apparatus of Soviet repression the state within the state that ruled all powerfully Through truly Shakespearean portraits of its victims men, women, and children we encounter secret police operations, labor camps and prisons the uprooting or extermination of whole populations, the welcome that awaited Russian soldiers who had been German prisoners of war Yet we also witness the astounding moral courage of the incorruptible, who, defenseless, endured great brutality and degradation The Gulag Archipelago a grisly indictment of a regime, fashioned here into a veritable literary miracle has now been updated with a new introduction that includes the fall of the Soviet Union and Solzhenitsyn s move back to Russia.


About the Author: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn Russian was a Soviet and Russian novelist, dramatist, The Gulag PDF or and historian Through his writings he helped to make the world aware of the Gulag, the Soviet Union s forced labor camp system particularly The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, two of his best known works Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in He was exiled from the Soviet Union in and returned to Russia in Solzhenitsyn was the father of Ignat Solzhenitsyn, a conductor and pianistAKAAlexander Solzenitsyn English, alternate Greek.


10 thoughts on “The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956

  1. says:

    Solzhenitsyn systematically goes through the horrors of the Soviet slave labour camps, one of the blackest chapters in world history I read this book as a teenager, not long after it came out, and I was appalled that my parents had presented the Soviet Union as anything other than a monstrosity For some reason, leftist people wouldn t properly admit it for a long time I still can t quite understand why If you feel any shadow of sympathy for Soviet Russia, read Solzhenitsyn and you will be cu Solzhenitsyn systematically goes through the horrors of the Soviet slave labour camps, one of the blackest chapters in world history I read this book as a teenager, not long after it came out, and I was appalled that my parents had presented the Soviet Union as anything other than a monstrosity For some reason, leftist people wouldn t properly admit it for a long time I still can t quite understand why If you feel any shadow of sympathy for Soviet Russia, read Solzhenitsyn and you will be cured One of the first myths he explodes is that it was all Stalin s fault, and that Lenin was basically a good guy Lenin just happened to die early, so it wasn t as obvious that he was equally to blame Solzhenitsyn recounts a comparatively minor and unknown incident from the revolution, where Lenin brutally orders some railway workers to be executed for not fully cooperating with the Bolsheviks As he comments just for this one episode, Lenin fully deserved to be shot He was responsible for dozens of much worse things

  2. says:

    I can not in clear conscience say that I really like a book about Soviet Gulags To be honest, I repeatedly reached my limit of emotional energy The story of any one of the 20 million people directly affected would haveimpact.Oh, right He tried that first, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich In a lot of ways, this a response to critics and deniers of his earlier book I can not in clear conscience say that I really like a book about Soviet Gulags To be honest, I repeatedly reached my limit of emotional energy The story of any one of the 20 million people directly affected would haveimpact.Oh, right He tried that first, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich In a lot of ways, this a response to critics and deniers of his earlier book

  3. says:

    I read this in 1974 in a bad situation in my life This put a bad situation in America in a totally new light I wishAmericans would listen and have listened to Solzhenitsyn.Update I don t know how many of you have followed thediscussion that has been going on here but it inspired me to extend this review a little The above is the original review in which I simply urged people to read the book for themselves as it has much to say and is applicable in many ways to events happening no I read this in 1974 in a bad situation in my life This put a bad situation in America in a totally new light I wishAmericans would listen and have listened to Solzhenitsyn.Update I don t know how many of you have followed thediscussion that has been going on here but it inspired me to extend this review a little The above is the original review in which I simply urged people to read the book for themselves as it has much to say and is applicable in many ways to events happening now.The book traces the history of the Soviet Gulag and then the willing refusal to look at the Gulag system that went on till the 80s well after the book s publication.I still recommend this book I doubt anyone will have trouble seeing the resemblance between the Gulags and the Concentration Camps of the Third Reichunless of course by willful ignorance There has also been a suggestion that Solzhenitsyn was antisemitic This apparently came from the controversy over his book Two Hundred Years Together where he says that some Jews were as much perpetrators as victims in Russia I can t take a stand on this but so far as I can see it s not antisemitism it s simply part of the book It was intended to be a comprehensive history of Jews in Russia.So far as THIS book goes I still recommend it and suggest as I do about all books that it be approached while thinking

  4. says:

    I began ploughing through this book in the dreary and climacteric era of my workplace coming of age A quickly promoted amateur in a world of pros, I was fast falling out of my depth and the deft irony of this book s prose was no match for my witlessness This book probably acted as one of its precipitants Who knows But, three years later, recuperating from the last of my fatal plummets, I met Fred Fred was a disproportionately effusive returner of favours, like me And, like me, he was bipo I began ploughing through this book in the dreary and climacteric era of my workplace coming of age A quickly promoted amateur in a world of pros, I was fast falling out of my depth and the deft irony of this book s prose was no match for my witlessness This book probably acted as one of its precipitants Who knows But, three years later, recuperating from the last of my fatal plummets, I met Fred Fred was a disproportionately effusive returner of favours, like me And, like me, he was bipolar So, working half days then, I enlisted his help.Most of the guys bad mouthed him, but I was by then a Christian, so avoided their game In fact, I opened up to Fred, and confided to him that I needed to find something for my wife and asked him, a trained expert in such things, to help find it.He didthan that Muchand it was so typically beautiful of Fred He brought me in one of his spares from home and GAVE it to me I was understandably floored.Next morning, working from home, I spotted this book on our piano Eureka Fred veteran as I was of tragic falls into his own gulags from official grace would surely appreciate it That afternoon when I arrived at work I placed it quietly on his desk.Was he fulsomely effusive in his thanks Yep you got it just like I can be We re like two overripe peas in a pod You know, guys I never would have finished my weary slog through these prolix chapters anyway, at that soul stretching time of drastic downsizing in our organization And me in the state I was then I had a job in hard economic times, and no matter how enervatingly demanding it got, I was HOLDING ON to it.But eleven years later fully retired, though on a fraction of my income wouldn t I have loved, you re saying, to restart this book THEN You re darned right, friends Books are expensive.And inflation keeps shrinking my pension in real terms.But folks, wouldn t YOU have done exactly the sameFor a kid at heart like Fred, that day To see his big face light up in garish gratitude like the Times Square Christmas Tree

  5. says:

    Given its historical importance, I fully expected that The Gulag Archipelago would be a lofty read What I didn t expect was that it works so well as a story Instead of being a straight history book, Gulag lies somewhere between journalism and history, and Solzhenitsyn s narrative voice is familiar and engaging The book feels less like a history lesson, andlike a conversation with a good friend who knows how to put together and express an interesting, important, heartbreaking, and unforg Given its historical importance, I fully expected that The Gulag Archipelago would be a lofty read What I didn t expect was that it works so well as a story Instead of being a straight history book, Gulag lies somewhere between journalism and history, and Solzhenitsyn s narrative voice is familiar and engaging The book feels less like a history lesson, andlike a conversation with a good friend who knows how to put together and express an interesting, important, heartbreaking, and unforgettable story A narrative about the Soviet prison camps seems like it would be so weighty as to be unreadable, but Solzhenitsyn makes it surprisingly palatable It s quite refreshing when you read a classic for the first time, and instantly understand where all the hype came from

  6. says:

    One of my all time favorites.One of the accounts from the book that still makes me laugh you read that right, though I shouldn t really is A political meeting was going on with about 1000 2000 people present in the hall somewhere in USSR I can t recall the exact location and time of the event Now the desiderata for survival in Stalin era was that everyone should stand up and clap their hands furiously at the mention of his name, and you don t want to be the one to stop clapping first Thi One of my all time favorites.One of the accounts from the book that still makes me laugh you read that right, though I shouldn t really is A political meeting was going on with about 1000 2000 people present in the hall somewhere in USSR I can t recall the exact location and time of the event Now the desiderata for survival in Stalin era was that everyone should stand up and clap their hands furiously at the mention of his name, and you don t want to be the one to stop clapping first This might suggest that you oppose Comrade Stalin how dare you, O ye of feeble bourgeois mentality So, at this assembly someone inevitably mentioned Stalin s name Right at that exact moment the whole congregation stood up and began to clap without forgetting to put a beaming stupid smile on their faces Now you can t be sure that if Cheka agents are watching you at that moment or not And over, you cannot stop clapping before your neighbor does, as he she might inform on you So this went on for 8 minutes I tried clapping for 10 seconds myself and came to the conclusion that you clap twice in a second if you are doing it with gusto fake or genuine So they battered their hands together for at least 900 times.After smashing their hands together until they began to hurt, the highest ranking local member of the Party at the meeting decided that this was getting ridiculous even by then Soviet Standards He thought that 8 minutes of clapping and smiling was enough for showing their loyalty for a singular mention of Comrade Stalin s name So he slowly stopped clapping and sat down The congregation took nothan half a second to do likewise following his lead Nobody spoke anything about the event in the concluding hours of the meeting But I am pretty much sure that everybody made certain that they didn t mention Stalin s name again for rest of the evening.Next day, the Party member was arrested and never heard from again.This book would have been comical if it would have been a work of fiction rather than non fiction But alas, that is not the case which makes it a sad sad collection of numerous accounts of human suffering under Soviet tyranny

  7. says:

    Each of us is a center of the Universe, and that Universe is shattered when they hiss at you You are under arrest So Solzhenitsyn s journey into the gulag began in 1945 where he spent eight years This is a personal history by a survivor of the false arrest, the long prison sentence, the brutal dehumanizing treatment that sends shivers up the spine Solzhenitsyn also reports the experiences of many others Each report is heartfelt Solzhenitsyn changed history by once and for all underminin Each of us is a center of the Universe, and that Universe is shattered when they hiss at you You are under arrest So Solzhenitsyn s journey into the gulag began in 1945 where he spent eight years This is a personal history by a survivor of the false arrest, the long prison sentence, the brutal dehumanizing treatment that sends shivers up the spine Solzhenitsyn also reports the experiences of many others Each report is heartfelt Solzhenitsyn changed history by once and for all undermining the mythical image of the Soviet Communist Party as a party for the workers He convincingly exposed the brutality and hypocrisy of the Soviet system under Lenin, Stalin and after It begins with the arrest for a few critical words, or having a friend who uttered them, or not turning in your friend, or just to fill a quota Such is the job of the bluecaps, the SMERSH, the apparatchiks of the State Security system, the interrogators whose job it is to get confessions Their job is not to determine guilt or innocence That is irrelevant Their instructions are clear Stalin has enemies You must deliver them If you do the rewards are great If you don t you will be gone This is how the gulags were filled Perhaps most surprising is how effective the secrecy was The average Soviet citizen knew people were watched and arrested or disappeared, but were ignorant of the scope Many in the West were taken in by Soviet propaganda While Stalin s purges in the late thirties unsettled some admirers in the West, for others it took Solzhenitsyn to show them the true nature of Soviet society.For many, incarceration was automatic All returning prisoners of war in WWII were sent to camps Similarly Russians who for any reason spent time in the West were sent to camps Anyone who performed any function under the German occupation was sent to camp These millions were added to the millions of political prisoners from the great purges and routine surveillance Solzhenitsyn describes the special camps, prisons, prison trains and the horrific penalty cells Inmates were routinely crowded into small, dirty, vermin infested, unheated compartments and cells For those that complained or attempted escape the penalty cells served up a wide variety of torture In camps inmates lived in primitive huts or crowded barracks sleeping together in confined spaces Many were not even allowed correspondence These unfortunates could receive no news of loved ones nor could their loved ones know anything about them Cut off completely from any prior life they ceased to exist to the outside world Here inmates worked off their 10 or 25 year sentences if they lived that long and their sentences were not extended Even if fortunate enough to eventually be released, they were sent with nothing but the rags on their backs to internal exile in some remote desert or tundra.Solzhenitsyn details the constant humiliations, the beatings, the tortures, the starvation diets of gruel and bread crusts He describes the work, harsh and meaningless, hour after hour, day after day, without respite Some camps intentionally worked the inmates to death Other camps were designated to contribute to the five year plans, to dig canals, to lay train tracks The inmates received nothing for this and the quality of the work reflected their motivation This use of prisoners kept the quotas high for the State Security system.Solzhenitsyn tells us about the inmates Typically dispirited, subject to a system designed to bring out the worst behavior at times they support each other but all too often it is each person out for him or herself He describes their captors, how they live off the system Upon arrival they take any remaining inmates possessions and the best looking young women for private mistresses Afterword they steal the inmate s food and use their labor for their personal gain Deprived of every dignity and every hope, some inmates finally come to acceptance and Solzhenitsyn describes its remarkable effect on the soul a feeling of quietness, peace In his seventh year of prison Solzhenitsyn experiences an epiphany looking back, I saw that for my whole conscious life I had not understood either myself or my strivings In the intoxication of youthful successes I had felt myself to be infallible, and I was therefore cruel And it was only when I lay there rotting on the prison straw that I sensed in myself the first stirrings of good Gradually it was disclosed to me that the line separating good and evil passes not through states, nor between classes, nor between political parties either but right through every human heart even within hearts overwhelmed by evil, one small bridgehead of good is retained And even in the best of all hearts, there remains an uprooted small corner of evil Thus Solzhenitsyn does not condemn the secret policeman, the interrogator, the camp guard as inherently evil If only it were so simple If only there were evil people somewhere insidiously committing evil deeds, and it were necessary only to separate them from the rest of us and destroy them To do evil a human being must first of all believe that what he s doing is good..Ideology That is what gives evildoing its long sought justification and gives the evildoer the necessary steadfastness and determination Thanks to ideology the twentieth century was fated to experience evildoing calculated on a scale in the millions In our present time of rising populist nationalism, we should not forget Solzhenitsyn s warning, There is always this fallacious belief It would not be the same here here such things are impossible Alas, all the evil of the twentieth century is possible everywhere on earth Yet, I have not given up all hope that human beings and nations may be able, in spite of all, to learn from the experience of other people without having to go through it personally

  8. says:

    A bleak and unremittingly grim account of the gulags between 1918 and 1956, narrative history rather than Solzhenitsyn s usual literary voice There are occasional flashes of hope and redemption, but these are few Solzhenitsyn provides a historical account reasoning through the state s decision making process and covering all the process of prison and exile from arrest to release not so many reached release There are detailed descriptions of the food, interrogations, torture, sanitary arrang A bleak and unremittingly grim account of the gulags between 1918 and 1956, narrative history rather than Solzhenitsyn s usual literary voice There are occasional flashes of hope and redemption, but these are few Solzhenitsyn provides a historical account reasoning through the state s decision making process and covering all the process of prison and exile from arrest to release not so many reached release There are detailed descriptions of the food, interrogations, torture, sanitary arrangements, travel, weather, clothing, the guards, stool pigeons, the daily work, rebellions, hunger strikes, executions, cells, relationships between the sexes and exile It is comprehensive and Solzhenitsyn does not spare the reader He also outlines some of the policies which led to the gulags, the architects of them primarily Lenin and Stalin and provides some estimates of the death toll generally from the gulags, starvation and land clearance figures are in the tens of millions all told It is an indictment of what Lenin and Stalin made of Marx in the Russian situation and some of the logical inconsistencies in the system you achieve the withering away of the state by making it bigger The whole thing is a testament to the fortitude of the human spirit There are occasional flashes of humour the party meeting where no one wants to be the first to stop clapping and so it goes on for over 8 minutes springs to mind The book is of historical importance placing the origins of the gulag with Lenin rather than Stalin he just exploited and perfected it It is a must read and there isn t a lotto say Anyone who wants to understand Soviet history has to read this

  9. says:

    This is a wonderful book, but like many Russian authors, Solzhenitsyn goes on too long too often and all the excess verbiage takes away rather than adds to the enjoyment and understanding of the book However this does not mean that some idiot librarian has the right to decide that all seven I think it was 7 volumes of the book should be divided willy nilly into just three volumes So The Gulag Archipelago, 1918 1956 An Experiment in Literary Investigation, Books III IV has all sorts of vol This is a wonderful book, but like many Russian authors, Solzhenitsyn goes on too long too often and all the excess verbiage takes away rather than adds to the enjoyment and understanding of the book However this does not mean that some idiot librarian has the right to decide that all seven I think it was 7 volumes of the book should be divided willy nilly into just three volumes So The Gulag Archipelago, 1918 1956 An Experiment in Literary Investigation, Books III IV has all sorts of volumes combined in it, volume 2, volume 4 etc WTF

  10. says:

    I view people that cling to the tenets of communism the same way I view Holocaust deniers From the Bolsheviks of 1917 to the turmoil in Venezuela of 2017 Communism is as Churchill said the equal sharing of misery The pages of Solzhenitsyn s Nobel Prize winning masterpiece are full of misery Solzhenitsyn paints a picture for the na ve westerner of the backbone and main pillar of Soviet Socialism The gulag The purpose of the network of gulags in the Soviet Union is to 1 Intimidate the mass I view people that cling to the tenets of communism the same way I view Holocaust deniers From the Bolsheviks of 1917 to the turmoil in Venezuela of 2017 Communism is as Churchill said the equal sharing of misery The pages of Solzhenitsyn s Nobel Prize winning masterpiece are full of misery Solzhenitsyn paints a picture for the na ve westerner of the backbone and main pillar of Soviet Socialism The gulag The purpose of the network of gulags in the Soviet Union is to 1 Intimidate the masses so that they dwell in a constant state of fear and 2 To provide the nation state with an endless supply of slave labor From the pages of this book you will learn that communism is probably the cruelest form of government in the history of humankind Solzhenitsyn s writing is first hand He was imprisoned for 8 years after being accused of writing letters that were critical of Stalin He wrote these letters while serving in the Red Army during WWII Being able to tell his story and that of his fellow zeks convicts was the motivation used by Solzhenitsyn to survive a brutal prison system designed to systematically kill it s inhabitants His writing style is angry and he uses sarcasm to describe the system of Soviet Gulags that make Tsarist Russia look like the Cub Scouts in comparison It is not an easy read One thing that makes it a difficult read is that that the author rambles on and repeats himself Solzhenitsyn apologizes for this but he explains he was never able to proofread the manuscript In fact, he never saw all of his notes in one place He had written this book and hid it in pieces all over the Soviet Union He was raided by the KGB while in the process of smuggling the pieces out of the country for publication So please forgive the author if he repeats himself and makes a few errors He wrote the book while living in a police state and didn t have the luxury of being able to proofread it THIS IS HOW YOU HAVE TO WRITE A BOOK WHEN YOU LIVE IN THE SOVIET UNION For this reason, make sure you select the abridged version This book is full of horrific but interesting stories Many are laughable if they weren t so cruel The NKVD the precursor to the KGB would observe a mass meeting Clapping would commence at the mere mention of comrade Stalin s name The ovation would last for 15 minutes orPeople applauding would quite literally pass out rather than be the first one to stop clapping Finally, one of the factory general managers stopped clapping because, after all, this was ridiculous There was an agenda to keep After the gathering the factory manager was arrested This was how the NKVD separated out the leaders The Soviet Union only wanted sheep Leaders were dangerous and sent to the gulag There is another story about the man who was struggling carrying a mass produced bust of Stalin The bust was too heavy and he had no way to carry it properly so he tied a rope around Stalin s head and slung it over his shoulder The man was given a 10 year sentence for terrorism Still another man was given 10 years for draping his hat and coat on a bust of Lenin There are endless stories about how the zeks convicts and the 58 s political prisoners were coerced into confessions and sentenced without a trial for political crimes they didn t commit When the suspect were charged with a crime it would be in code When the citizen asked what is code 58 XYZ they were told by their interrogators that is for us to know During interrogations, the arrested argued that they had fought against the Germans or fought in the Revolution and their interrogators would say that that is another matter Please note that I did not use the term suspects because there were no suspects If arrested, you were guilty These were not isolated incidents Solzhenitsyn said that almost every family had at least one family member orincarcerated in one of the many islands of prisons throughout the Soviet Union The zeks were fed a ration that could not sustain them when subjected to backbreaking labor They were forced to work hard labor 7 days a week and often 16 hour days even if temperatures fell to 60 F The author tells of a canal built to the black sea where a quarter million zeks were killed in the process Solzhenitsyn refused to compare the building of the canal to the building of the pyramids because, as he says, the difference was that the Egyptian slaves were at least given contemporary technology while the Soviets used only primitive technology Trees were cleared by tying ropes to the tops of them and having gangs of zeks wiggle the tree until it could be toppled over The canal was dug by pick and shovel and the frozen earth was carried away in wheel barrows or in a sack carried over the shoulder People were dead from exhaustion, starvation, and by exposure and froze to death where they fell The useless canal that ended the lives of so many was never even utilized This and other things built by slave labor and managed by central government planning were most often inferior and shoddy Solzhenitsyn argues that peasants of Tsarist Russia were far better off than peasants living under Soviet rule He cites the outrages that led to revolution and uses statistics to demonstrate how these outrages pale in comparison to the modern Socialist State and the system of Gulags The Russian peasants were far, far, far better off before Lenin and Stalin came along Yes, the peasants were slaves prior to 1867 but they got Sundays off and several Christian Holidays off There were far fewer political prisoners and capital punishment was relatively rare Ironically, all of these things abject slavery, political prisoners, and capital punishment inspired the Revolution Lenin who had never pushed a wheelbarrow or worked a pick or shovel thought it was a good thing for prisoners to work rather than sit idle The gulag was his idea Millions upon millions of the former peasants some who had even fought in the revolution were rounded up and convicted as political prisoners for such terrible crimes as having a defeatist attitude Many were executed there on the spot but others were executed very slowly in the work gangs of the gulag.I found the following argument very interesting Solzhenitsyn remarks about how West Germany had convicted former Nazis for war crimes and crimes against humanity By 1966, West Germany had convicted 86,000 of them He said that the Soviets loved to read about this in the paper Each person would express glee each time a Nazi was sentenced He said if the West Germans convicted 86,000 than the Soviet Union should proportionately convict 250,000 However, only 10 men total in the Soviet Union were ever convicted of crimes against citizens Solzhenitsyn cries out in the pages of this book that the killers of millions of people walk among us every day He said that when he brings this up, he is told that he shouldn t dredge up the past Solzhenitsyn contends that Soviet society needed the healing that it would provide when these men and women would repent and confess for their terrible sins for incarcerating, torturing, and murdering their own citizens He argued that the Soviet Union needed this healing just like the Germans experienced I could go on and on about the destruction of the Kulaks, political prisoners as young as 6 years old, a system of informants and stool pigeons, prison demonstrations and work stoppages that were settled under the tracks of T 34 tanks and strafing planes but I have had enough Communism disgusts me Gulag Archipelago is a fifty year old book But it is timely reading Over 40% of millennials surveyed say that they would prefer a socialist form of government over capitalism Inside Russia, I am told that the youth yearn for the old days Closer to home, the local high school has allowed the children to start a communist club Isn t that nice Imagine the outrage if the school allowed the students to start a Nazi club Maybe all the world s useful idiots as Lenin used to call them have need to read Solzhenitsyn s masterpiece

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