Ploughing Sand: British Rule In Palestine 1917-1948 ePUB

Ploughing Sand: British Rule In Palestine 1917-1948 ePUB
    Ploughing Sand: British Rule In Palestine 1917-1948 ePUB the British in Palestine were handed an ambiguous brief to encourage the formation of a national home for the Jews and to protect the civil and religious rights of the local Arabs Colonial officials tried vainly to create a pluralist, composite state from communities divided by politics, religion, language, culture even economic and social structure They attempted to legislate for the benefit of Arabs and Jews alike, but saw many of their laws on immigration and land evaded by both, often in collusion Trying at first to settle political conflict by persuasion and conciliation, in the end they turned disastrously to forceThis study is the first to reconstruct in detail the workings of the troubled Mandate administration, and the influence of its chief personalities At the end, with the land records preserved and military equipment consigned to the sea, a leading official complained bitterly that all constructive efforts in Palestine had been like ploughing sand."/>
  • Hardcover
  • 304 pages
  • Ploughing Sand: British Rule In Palestine 1917-1948
  • Naomi Shephard
  • English
  • 10 March 2019
  • 0813527651

Ploughing Sand: British Rule In Palestine 1917-1948[PDF / Epub] ✪ Ploughing Sand: British Rule In Palestine 1917-1948 ☆ Naomi Shephard – Essayreview.co.uk This book recreates British rule in Palestine from the winter of to the spring of Between these dates, the Jewish minority turned political weakness into strength, and the Palestine Arabs headed for This book recreates British rule in Palestine British Rule ePUB ´ from the winter ofto the spring ofBetween these dates, the Jewish minority turned Ploughing Sand: MOBI :Á political weakness into strength, and the Palestine Arabs headed for disaster How this happened under British administration is the subject of Sand: British Rule Kindle Ô this richly documented account, based on public and private papers, memoirs, and interviews many never previously publishedAfter the First World War the British in Palestine were handed an ambiguous brief to encourage the formation of a national home for the Jews and to protect the civil and religious rights of the local Arabs Colonial officials tried vainly to create a pluralist, composite state from communities divided by politics, religion, language, culture even economic and social structure They attempted to legislate for the benefit of Arabs and Jews alike, but saw many of their laws on immigration and land evaded by both, often in collusion Trying at first to settle political conflict by persuasion and conciliation, in the end they turned disastrously to forceThis study is the first to reconstruct in detail the workings of the troubled Mandate administration, and the influence of its chief personalities At the end, with the land records preserved and military equipment consigned to the sea, a leading official complained bitterly that all constructive efforts in Palestine had been like ploughing sand.


About the Author: Naomi Shephard

Is a well known author, some of British Rule ePUB ´ his books are a fascination for readers like in the Ploughing Sand: British Ploughing Sand: MOBI :Á Rule In Palestine book, this is one of the most wanted Naomi Shephard author readers around the world.


10 thoughts on “Ploughing Sand: British Rule In Palestine 1917-1948

  1. says:

    The title of this informative portrait of British administration in their Mandatory government of Palestine refers to the possibility of creating the soil in which Jewish and Arab understanding could germinate or even grow, as written by one of herconscientious colonial civil servants The British certainly had a thankless task in the Palestine Mandate to try and square the circle of the promise of the Balfour Declaration to bring about a Jewish national home while attempting to satisfy The title of this informative portrait of British administration in their Mandatory government of Palestine refers to the possibility of creating the soil in which Jewish and Arab understanding could germinate or even grow, as written by one of herconscientious colonial civil servants The British certainly had a thankless task in the Palestine Mandate to try and square the circle of the promise of the Balfour Declaration to bring about a Jewish national home while attempting to satisfy the aspirations of the Arabs, who formed the majority of the population and were determined to oppose and prevent the founding of that entity, in which they saw their future doom, correctly, as it turns out Yet, one has to say that, by and large, the Brits did their best, improving the health and welfare of the country, constructing infrastructures such as roads, ports, airfields and water supply systems, but often the deep poverty of the Arab sector and their lack of trained and educated leadership undermined the British efforts The Arab Revolt of 1936 39 forced the British to vastly expand their military and police garrisons and was a catastrophe for the Arabs in Palestine, playing not a small part in their eventual defeat in the Israel War of Independence In the end, of course, the British were forced to throw the problem into the lap of the United Nations, who voted for partition A fascinating and still relevant era in the history of the country, and Naomi Shepherd writes about it with verve and style Not to be missed by students of the Arab Israeli conflict First rate

  2. says:

    Next to NormalJourneywoman discussion of British administrative concerns during the Palestinine Mandatory period from the end of WWI until May 1947 The chapters are a bit long and could have been broken up into smaller chunks The coverage progresses by theme rather than by sequence of events it jumps around a bit The presentation could have been improved by the provision of a timeline or a list of British High Commissioners along with supporting personnel.My main takeaway was that the Arabs Next to NormalJourneywoman discussion of British administrative concerns during the Palestinine Mandatory period from the end of WWI until May 1947 The chapters are a bit long and could have been broken up into smaller chunks The coverage progresses by theme rather than by sequence of events it jumps around a bit The presentation could have been improved by the provision of a timeline or a list of British High Commissioners along with supporting personnel.My main takeaway was that the Arabs saw the situation as a Zero Sum game where any gain by others was a loss to them, whereas the Zionists believed in a Win Win scenario I believe this remains true to the present day.Chapter 1 is a prefunctory treatment covering British interests in the ME Shepherd favors the explanation that the West viewed the myth of Jewish power as quite real and regarded an alliance with Weizman as providing assistance at containing Russian Bolsheviks as well as maintaining a swath of British control leading to India and the Far East There were interests in the Arab oil fields but they were not quite as important in the beginning Shepherd notes that Arab society was stratified with members of the former Ottoman elite at the top and a large peasant class at the bottom.Chapter 2 covers the transition from Allenby s victory to British rule There were nascent glimmering of Arab Nationalism and Zionism was easily asserting itself as the dominant voice of the Jewish community over communal rabbinic leaders British administrators established a familiar and paternalistic governing role British style clubs, theatre and sports were established desert jackels replaced fox hunting and an interest in local architecture and Arts and Crafts was encouraged over modernization and industrialization.Chapter 3 The Law Factory concerns itself with the decision to continue with the millet system of Law that existed previously under the Ottomans, attempting to apply British rationality and equitability to a system that was neither It was also insulting and disadvantageous to the Muslim Arabs to see themselves reduced to the status of a separate confessional group rather than the natural successors to the Ottomans Jews demanded political parity with Arabs In Jerusalem where they constituted 70% of the population they asked for 50% of the council seats Unable to obtain an agreement between Jews and Arabs the British dissolved the municipal council The chapter also explores the hot topic of land sales to Jews and immigration Jews wanted unlimited immigration, Arabs felt that that this ipso facto was unjust However the only effective border control were the ports and the train stations Arabs migrated fairly easily across nearly invisible borders the British mostly gave in to Arab demands hoping it would keep the peace.The same chapter covers land sales to Jews Here again the British applied a policy of appeasement that had worked so well for them in Europe during the 1930s However, Jews were willing to pay high prices and willing sellers, even among Arab notables who publicly professed to be against the practice were quite willing to employ subterfuges to get around the law and make a sale Unlike Arab land owners who either traded indentured sharecroppers when they sold or moved them to another property, Jewish purchasers indemnified the tenant farmers in addition to paying the costs of the land, allowing them to monetize an asset that had no priory monetary value Some of them used the money to buy land or move to the cities However the book The Claim of Dispossession does a better job of analyzing and accounting for land sales than is done here.The 4th chapter, Patching Up Palestine dealt with Health and Education issues Lots of good details here The British felt that it would be cruel to over educate the locals and whom they felt were most suited for an agrarian lifestyle Generally British colonialism tended to raise the educational standards but only so far Ruling over Jews was a bit different Not only did Jews demand higher education, they also paid for it for their own children above and beyond what the British governors were willing to endorse There is an interesting segment on a large grant given by a Sir Ellis Kadouri, a British Jew of Iraqi background that was used to create both a Jewish and an Arab school Whereas the syllabus of Arab Christian schools is impressive we find that education for Muslim youth was undervalued and underfunded The education of girls vs boys is also discussed, which I found personally interesting, but about par for the times.The final chapter Iron Gloves and deals with conflict and policing and retraces the timeline from 1920 to 1948 Thus we learn that due to dropping levels of Jewish immigration the British were undermanned and unprepared for the Arab riots of 1929 During the Arab revolt from 1936 to spring 1939 the Mufti waged a campaign of boycott, intimidation and terror and many of his victims were from rival clans Al Aqsa itself was used to hide weapons, militants and was used to perform executions Shepherd relates that British applied collective punishment in the villages where clan loyalties were strongest and the Arabs themselves practiced collective and clan related punishment on each other, but did not apply the policy in the cities Less often but in a few noted occasions collective punishment was applied to Jews who protested the practice In Jerusalem from May to October 1936 on average one Jew was murdered every 2 3 days The British pursued the Arab rebels to the country side when the British were able to reassert control One of the consequences of of the revolt is that many of the Arab policemen were dismissed and were asked to turn in their weapons.In 1940 as Rommel advanced in Africa the British became concerned about the aftermath of a possible Nazi victory Here they worked actively with the Jews until 1942 Jewish paratroopers were trained for Europe and Jewish saboteurs were sent on missions into Vichy Syria and Lebanon British Intelligence allied themselves with Jewish intelligence as a number of German Jewish immigrants had infiltrated into the the Nazi network in Palestine Some members of the Haganah started training in Special Operations but then there were second thoughts and the training was discontinued And finally the book deals with the endgame period from 1946 1948 Shepherd s conclusion is that the British endeavored to act as a buffer attempting to honour their sense of fairness, a position that both sides believed favoured the other The chapter is well worth reading as a standalone and the reader can fuel their own biases and or reach their own conclusions.On the whole I found the book to be informative, esp to if one happens to deal in the imperfect world of administration As much as we might hope, goals are rarely matched by results And so things muddle along A good follow up book that I ve just started is Mandate Days British Lives in Palestine, 1918 1948 which takes the POV from the lower levels of Britain s Mandatory regime

  3. says:

    Should get 4 1 2 stars Arguably the best general history on the British Mandate in Palestine.

  4. says:

    I was disappointed with this book Firstly Naomi Shephard should have mentioned the Balfour Declaration and its background as it was very relevant to the Mandate and secondly she treated all three groups involved in her book far too lightly Both the Arabs and Jews suffered at the hands of the British not only during British rule in Palestine but before substantially Both peoples have been and are still treated unfairly by the Americans and Europe, though Jewish treatment is no better towards t I was disappointed with this book Firstly Naomi Shephard should have mentioned the Balfour Declaration and its background as it was very relevant to the Mandate and secondly she treated all three groups involved in her book far too lightly Both the Arabs and Jews suffered at the hands of the British not only during British rule in Palestine but before substantially Both peoples have been and are still treated unfairly by the Americans and Europe, though Jewish treatment is no better towards the Arabs

  5. says:

    Interesting read, yet very informative Sadly, as expected, the years 1916 1939 were well covered out weighing the space given to 1939 1948 However reading this made me understand eventhat the moment the British Government published the Balfour Declaration, a Jewish state was going to be formed in Palestine All at the expense of the local Arabs, who were still are kicked off their lands Yet still believe not all fault lies with the British, where were the neighboring Arab states Interesting read, yet very informative Sadly, as expected, the years 1916 1939 were well covered out weighing the space given to 1939 1948 However reading this made me understand eventhat the moment the British Government published the Balfour Declaration, a Jewish state was going to be formed in Palestine All at the expense of the local Arabs, who were still are kicked off their lands Yet still believe not all fault lies with the British, where were the neighboring Arab states

  6. says:

    I found it to be quite a slog to get through.

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